Glaucoma is a painful increase of pressure inside the eyeball that rapidly causes irreversible blindness. With glaucoma the production of fluid inside the eye is greater than the fluid outflow which causes the pressure to increase.

There are many possible causes of obstruction to the fluid outflow including: congenital conformational abnormalities of the drainage angle - iridocorneal angle (called goniodysgenersis), or more acquired lesions including masses, tumours, inflammation, trauma, puss, blood, luxated lens, or prolapsed vitreous.

Signs of glaucoma usually include pain, loss of vision, redness / inflammation of the white of the eye, bluing / cloudiness of the cornea, and the eye usually presents with a large dilated pupil which is non-responsive to light. When the glaucoma becomes more prolonged, the eye often increases in size.

Prompt, accurate diagnosis of the glaucoma and rapid, intensive and aggressive therapy is needed for any chance of visual recovery and saving the eye.